A recent conversation with a client revolved around the self-esteem of adult learners. In the 1970’s, Malcolm Knowles wrote extensively about learning principles relating to self-esteem specifically in adult learners. He believed that adult learners have something to lose and a strong need to maintain their self-esteem. Courses they attend should be set up to ensure successful outcomes, and adult learners need to feel they are being heard. I doubt that many training professionals would disagree with these theories, but do they still hold up in 2017? Of course, they do—maybe more so now than ever!